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In the agricultural areas in northern Lao PDR, maize production has become widespread due to intensive agricultural practices. As a result of intensive agriculture, farmers have been affected by soil degradation and increasing production costs. The farmers' knowledge and perceptions of sustainable soil conservation practices (SSCP) have inﬂuenced crop pro- duction. Importantly, soil conservation practices result in high soil fertility and decreased production costs. This study assessed the farmers' knowledge and perceptions of SSCP on maize production. A survey was conducted of 161 households in three villages (Palay, Boumlao-Phakeo, and Senphon) to gather primary data. Focus group discussions were also conducted to solicit additional data. Data analysis utilized a Knowledge Index and a ﬁve- point Likert scale. The results showed that 63 percent of the farmers interviewed were highly knowledgeable about SSCP while 32 percent and 5 percent had medium and low levels of SSCP knowledge, respectively. Regardless of the level of SSCP knowledge, farmers were conversant with the advantages and disadvantages of SSCP. However, farmers who had low levels of SSCP knowledge lacked practical application of soil conservation practices compared to those farmers with medium to high levels of SSCP knowledge. The survey results also showed there was a high level of perception of SSCP with 61 percent of the farmers interviewed positively agreeing with soil conservation practices. Nonetheless, despite the high perceptions of maize farmers in the study area, our ﬁndings showed a low take-up rate for SSCP practices. To improve the farmers’ application of SSCP, the government and non-government organizations should provide a range of projects such as programs on the techniques of maize production and the technical practice of SSCP.