Effect of calving season and climatic factors on age at puberty, service period and successful mating in Nili-Ravi buffalo


  • Naveed-e- Sehar Zaidi Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Institute of Advance Studies for Agriculture, National Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Anwar Livestock Research Station, National Agriculture Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan


Bubalus bubalis, buffaloes, climatic factor, season, service period, age at puberty


A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the effect of season and climatic factors on age at puberty, service period and successful mating of Nili-Ravi buffalo maintained at a Public Sector Dairy Farm in Okara, Pakistan. Records, spread over a period of 13 years (2000 to 2012), for 583 buffaloes were analyzed for this purpose. Age at puberty was calculated by subtracting date of birth from date of first fruitful service. Average age at puberty and service period were 1056.87±83.11 and 193.81±47.32 days respectively. Season of birth had a significant effect (P<0.05) on age at puberty. Calves born in winter had a shorter age at puberty (962.09±9.81) compared with those born in other three seasons (spring, summer and autumn). Effect of calving season on service period was significant (P<0.05). Autumn calvers had the shortest service period (193.81±47.32). Service period did not differ with calving year (P>0.05). Month of the year and successful mating (r = 0.67) were positively correlated with each other (P<0.05). Maximum and minimum number of successful mating were recorded in October (21.75%) and June (3.88%). The correlation between individual climatic factors (i.e. daily temperature, rain fall, sunshine hours, relative humidity) and successful mating was non-significant (P>0.05). It was concluded that climatic factors did affect the reproductive activities but their individual effect was non- significant in buffalo. However, season, a combination of climatic factors, had significant effect on reproductive activities.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Naveed-e- Sehar Zaidi, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Institute of Advance Studies for Agriculture, National Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan

Muhammad Anwar, Livestock Research Station, National Agriculture Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan


Agarwal, P. 2003. Augmentation of reproduction in buffaloes. In Proceedings of 4th Asian Buffalo Congress: Lead Papers, New Delhi, India. 121p.

Ali, A., K. Javed, N. Ahmad and S.U. Rehman. Environmental factors affecting some reproductive traits in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 21(4): 868-887.

Bashir, M.K. 2006. Genetic and phenotypic aspects of some performance traits of Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Bhalla, R.C., B.K. Soni and D.P.S. Sengar. 1966. Studies on reproduction in Murrah buffaloes. Involution of uterus. Indian Vet. J., 43(10): 892-896.

Bhatti, S.A., M. Sarwar, M.S. Khan and S.M.I. Husain. 2007. Reducing the age of first calving through nutritional manipulation in dairy buffaloes and cows. Pak. Vet. J., 27(1): 42-47. Available on: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Bughio, S., A.K. Shahani, A.H. Mirani, A. Moriani, F.C. Oad and B.A. Bughio. 2000. Seasonal trend of calving and subsequent service period in Buffaloes. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 3(12): 2169-2170. DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2000.2169.2170

Campanile, G., P.S. Baruselli, D. Vecchio, A. Prandi, G. Neglia, N.A.T. Carvalho, J.N.S. Sales, B. Gasparrini and M.J. D’Occhio 2010. Growth, metabolic status and ovarian function in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers fed low energy or high energy diet. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 122(1-2): 74-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2010.07.005

Chhikara, S.K., N. Singh, S.S. Dhaka and R.S. Yadav. 1995. Effect of certain factors on calving interval of Murrah buffaloes. Journal of Dairying, Food Home Sciences, 14: 29-32.

El-Wishy, A.B. 2007a. The postpartum buffalo: Endocrinological changes and uterine involution. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 97(3-4): 201-215. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2006.03.004

Haldar, A. and B.S. Prakash. 2005. Peripheral patterns of growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone before, at and after puberty in buffalo heifer. Endocrine Research, 31(4): 295-306. DOI: 10.1080/07435800500422608

Haldar, A. and B.S. Prakash. 2006. Growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) induced growth hormone advances puberty in female buffaloes. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 92(3-4): 254-267. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2005.06.002

Hussain, Z., K. Khalid, S.M.I. Hussainn and G.S. Kiyani. 2006. Reproductive performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 16(1-2): 15-19.

Jabbar, M.A., M.I. Anjum, S. Rehman and W. Shahzad. 2006. Comparative efficiency of sunflower meal and cottonseed cakes in the feed of crossbred calves for meat production. Pak. Vet. J., 26(3): 126-128. Available on: https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Khanum, S.A., M. Husain, L. Jabar, R. Kausar, A.M. Chema and M.A. Jabar. 2012. Effect of concentrate supplementation on age at maturity in growing buffalo heifers. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 22: 329-331.

Matthews, C.D., M.V. Guerin and J.R. Deed. 1993. Melatonin and photoperiodic time measurement. Seasonal breeding in the sheep. J. Pineal Res., 14: 105-116. Available on: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1600-079X.1993.tb00493.x

Nanda, A.S., P.S. Brar and S. Prabhakar. 2003. Enhancing reproductive performance in dairy buffalo: Major constraints and achievements. Reproduction Supplement, 61: 27-36. Available on: https://www.biosciproceedings.org/bp/0005/pdf/bp0005rdr3.pdf

Naqvi, A.N. 2000. Effect of parity and season of calving on service period in Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan. Asian Austral. J. Anim., 13(3): 287-291. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2000.287

Papachristoforou, C., A. Koumas and C. Photiou. 2000. Seasonal effects on puberty and reproductive characteristics of female Chios sheep and Damascus goats born in autumn and in February. Small Ruminant Res., 38(1): 9-15. DOI: 10.1016/s0921-4488(00)00143-7

Park, C.S., R.B. Danielson, B.S. Kreft, S.H. Kim, Y.S. Moon and W.L. Keller. 1998. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth and effects on lactation potential of developing heifers. J. Dairy Sci., 81(1): 243-249. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75572-9

Parmeggiani, A., Di Palo R., L. Zicarelli, G. Campanile, L. Esposito, E. Seren, P.A. Accorsi and S.M. Soflai. 1994. Melatonina e stagionalità riproduttiva della bufala. Agricoltura e Ricerca, 153: 41-48.

Perera, B.M.A.O. 2011. Reproductive cycles of buffalo. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 124(3-4): 194-199.

Rosa, H.J.D. and M.J. Bryant. 2003. Seasonality of reproduction in sheep. Small Ruminant Res., 48(3): 155-171. DOI: 10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00038-5

Saha, S., D.K. Sadana and S. Saha. 2000. Effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on reproduction traits in Murrah buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Health, 39(1): 41-42.

Singh, R.V. and A.E. Nivasarkar. 2000. Production and reproduction potential of Bhadawari buffaloes. Buffalo J., 16(2): 163-173.

Suhail, S.M., M.S. Qureshi, S. Khan and Ihsanullah. 2009. Inheritance of economic traits of dairy buffaloes in Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 25(1): 87-93.

Terzano, G.M., L.B. Vittoria and A. Borghese. 2012. Overview of reproductive endocrine aspects in buffalo. Journal of Buffalo Science, 1: 126-138. DOI: 10.6000/1927-520X.2012.01.02.01

Thevamanoharan, K. 2002. Genetic analysis of performance traits of swamp and Riverine buffalo, Ph.D. Thesis, Katholieke University Leuven, Belgium.

Zicarelli, L. 1997. Reproductive seasonality in buffalo. In Proceedings of the 3th International Course of Bio-Technology in Buffalo Reproduction, Napoli, Italy.




How to Cite

Zaidi, N.- e-. S., & Anwar, M. (2021). Effect of calving season and climatic factors on age at puberty, service period and successful mating in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Buffalo Bulletin, 40(3), 475–484. Retrieved from https://kuojs.lib.ku.ac.th/index.php/BufBu/article/view/2472



Original Article