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A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the effect of season and climatic factors on age at puberty, service period and successful mating of Nili-Ravi buffalo maintained at a Public Sector Dairy Farm in Okara, Pakistan. Records, spread over a period of 13 years (2000 to 2012), for 583 buffaloes were analyzed for this purpose. Age at puberty was calculated by subtracting date of birth from date of first fruitful service. Average age at puberty and service period were 1056.87±83.11 and 193.81±47.32 days respectively. Season of birth had a significant effect (P<0.05) on age at puberty. Calves born in winter had a shorter age at puberty (962.09±9.81) compared with those born in other three seasons (spring, summer and autumn). Effect of calving season on service period was significant (P<0.05). Autumn calvers had the shortest service period (193.81±47.32). Service period did not differ with calving year (P>0.05). Month of the year and successful mating (r = 0.67) were positively correlated with each other (P<0.05). Maximum and minimum number of successful mating were recorded in October (21.75%) and June (3.88%). The correlation between individual climatic factors (i.e. daily temperature, rain fall, sunshine hours, relative humidity) and successful mating was non-significant (P>0.05). It was concluded that climatic factors did affect the reproductive activities but their individual effect was non- significant in buffalo. However, season, a combination of climatic factors, had significant effect on reproductive activities.
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