Main Article Content
Present experiment was conducted on sixty Murrah buffalo divided into three groups: lactating, involution stage/dry and pregnant stage (non-lactating early pregnant stage, non-lactating mid pregnant stage and non-lactating late pregnant stage). Most of the alveoli were spherical to oval elongated in shape. In lactating stage, only small and medium sized alveoli were present. In involuting stage due to degeneration and inactiveness only small alveoli were recorded. In non-lactating late pregnant stage most of the alveoli were large sized. A highly significant statistical difference was noted among different stages of lactation in the diameter of alveoli. The active alveoli were lined by cuboidal epithelium to low cuboidal epithelium, while resting alveoli were lined by squamous epithelium with dark nuclei. The number of resting alveoli were found increased with the advancement of lactation. Up to two months of involution most of the alveoli were degenerative. A highly significant statistical difference was noted in the height of alveolar epithelium in different stages of lactation.
Carrol, E.J. 1980. Lactation. In McDonald, L.E. (edn.) Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction, 3rd ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA.
Cadar, M., V. Mireşan, A. Lujerdean and C. Răducu. 2012. Mammary gland histological structure in relation with milk production in sheep. Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 45(2): 146-148. Available on: https://core.ac.uk/reader/25520930
Cowie, A.T. and H.L. Buttle. 1980. Lactation. In Hafez, E.S.E. (edn.) Reproduction in Farm Animals, 4th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA.
Drury, R.A.B. and E.A. Wallington. 1980. Carleton’s Histological Technique, 5th ed. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Holst, B.D., W.L. Hurley and D.R. Nelson. 1987. Involution of the bovine mammary gland: Histological and ultrastructural changes. J. Dairy Sci., 70(5): 935-944. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80097-8
Hluchy, S. and N. Bolcso. 2011. Histological and morphometric study of lactating mammary glands in sows. Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 44 (2): 168-173
Hurley, W.L. 2009. Lactation. Available on: http://classes;ansci.uiucedu/ansci438 /Lactation/ harmone.html.
Jacobson, N.L. 2000. The mammary gland and lactation. In Swanson, M.J. (edn.) Dukes Physiology of Domestic Animal, 9th ed. CBS, New Delhi, India.
Kensinger, R.S., R.J. Coller, F.W. Bazer, C.A. Ducsay and H.N. Becker. 1982. Nucleic acid, metabolic and histological changes in the gilt mammary tissue during pregnancy and lactogenesis. J. Anim. Sci., 54(6): 1297-1308. DOI: 10.2527/jas1982.5461297x
Panchal, K.M. and Y.L. Vyas. 2005. The Anatomy of Udder of Buffalo: A Complete Monologue. Department of Anatomy and Histology, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, India.
Parmasivan, S., G. Ramesh, S. Ushakumary, C. Balchandran and S. Ramakrishnan. 2013. Ultrastructure of Alveolar epithelium of mammary gland in sheep during various physiological condition. Indian Vet. J., 90(10): 17-19.
Patel, A.K., P.G. Koringa, K.N. Nandsana, U.V. Ramani, D.R. Barvalia and K.M. Panchal. 2007. Effect of bovine Somatotropin (bST) administration on histology of mammry gland in lactating buffalo. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 19(2): 22-28.
Reid, I.M. and R.L. Chandler. 1973. Ultrastructural studies on the bovine mammary gland with particular reference to glycogen distribution. Res. Vet. Sci., 14(3): 334-340. DOI: 10.1016/S0034-5288(18)33885-2
Singh, U.B. and S. Sulochana. 1996. Handbook of Histological and Histochemical Technique, 1st ed. Premier Publishing House, Hyderabad, India.
Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochron. 1980. Statistical Methods, 7th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Sordillo, L.M. and S.C. Nickerson. 1988. Morphologic changes in the bovine mammary gland during involution and lactogenesis. Am. J. Vet. Res., 49(7): 1112-1120.
Sulochana, S., S. Yashwant and D.N. Sharma. 1989. Histological studies on the development of mammary parenchyma in pregnant sheep. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 1(1-2): 33-38.
Vaish, R., J.S. Taluja, N. Gupta and Y. Pandey. 2015. Histomorphogenesis of mammary gland in prepubertal goat. Indian Vet. J., 92 (8): 44-47
Weber, A.F., R.L. Kitchell and J.H. Sautter. 1955. Mammary gland studies. The identity and characterization of smallest lobule unit in the udder of the dairy cow. Am. J. Vet. Res., 16(59): 255-257.