Alterations in milk composition due to seasonal and lactational stages in Tarai buffalo

Main Article Content

Rizwana Begum Ruokuobeinuo Huozha Sunil Kumar Rastogi Praneeta Singh


Thirty-six healthy Tarai buffaloes (280-350±10 kg body weight, 2nd to 4th parity) were selected to investigate their milk composition. The selected animals were divided into four groups having nine buffaloes in each group as; each group from early, mid and late lactation and another group of dry buffaloes. The study carried out in four seasons and climatic variants of temperature and relative humidity were recorded for each month where temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated. Results of milk composition with advancing in lactation stage showed significantly (P<0.05) higher values for milk fat, urea and total solids. In season-wise, milk constituents of fat, protein and total solids were found significantly (P<0.05) higher during winter season except higher milk urea in summer season. Other milk constituents include lactose, SNF and pH were remain unaffected throughout the lactation period and seasons. Milk somatic cell count (SCC) is affected by both lactation period and seasons but the variations stood non-significant. Calculated THI in tarai region was found higher (79<THI<84) during summer and rainy seasons. It may be concluded that Tarai buffalo performances are affected by seasonal variations and lactation period as indicated in milk composition variations. Thus, Tarai buffalo could perform better if improvement in their management system of housing and feeding of quality nutrients.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
BEGUM, Rizwana et al. Alterations in milk composition due to seasonal and lactational stages in Tarai buffalo. Buffalo Bulletin, [S.l.], v. 40, n. 4, p. 637-644, dec. 2021. ISSN 2539-5696. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 11 aug. 2022.
Original Article


Adeela Yasmin, Nuzhat Huma, Masood Sadiq, Butt Tahir and Muhammad Yasin. 2012. Seasonal variation in milk vitamin contents available for processing in Punjab. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 11(2): 99-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.jssas.2012.01.002

Anonymous, 2014. Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, an Autonomous Organization Under the Department of Agriculture Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. Available on:

AOAC, 2000. Official Method of Analysis 988.05, 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Maryland, USA.

Banerjee, G.C. 1985. A Textbook of Animal Husbandry, 6th ed. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi, India.

Bansal, B., B. Habib, H. Rebmann and X.D. Chen. 2009. Effect of seasonal variation in milk composition on dairy fouling. In Proceedings of International Conference on Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VIII, Schladming, Austria.

Chashnidel, Y., H. Hafezian, B. Shohreh and R.K. Yazdi. 2010. Seasonal variation in compositions and fatty acids profile (with Emphasis on CLA) in Iranian buffalo’s milk. Italian J. Animal. Sci., 6(Suppl. 2): 1053-1055. DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.1053

Dairyman’s Digest. 2009. What You Should Know about Somatic Cells. Winter Issue.

Dhali, A., R.K. Mehla, S.K. Sirohi, A. Mech and M. Karunakaran. 2006. Monitoring feeding adequacy in dairy cows using milk urea and milk protein contents under farm condition. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 19(12): 1742-1748. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2006.1742

Elanco Animal Health. 1996. Body Condition Scoring. Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, USA.

Ferguson, J.D., D.T. Galligan and N. Thomsen. 1994. Principal descriptors of body condition score in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 77(9): 2695-2703. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77212-X

Giirler, Z., Y. Kuyucuoglu and S. Pamuk. 2013. Chemical and microbiological quality of Anatolian buffalo milk. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 7(16): 1512-1517. DOI: 10.5897/AJMR12.1014

Harmon, R.J. 1994. Physiology of mastitis and factors affecting somatic cell counts. J. Dairy Sci., 77(7): 2103-2112. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77153-8

Indian Standards Institution. 1977. Part I. Determination of fat by the Gerber method. Chemical Analysis of Milk. Bureau of Indian Standards Institution, Manak Bhavan, New Delhi, India.

IBM. International Business Machine, Statistical Package for Social Science Version 20. International Business Machine, New York, USA.

Khate, K. and B.R. Yadav. 2010. Incidence of mastitis in Sahiwal cattle and Murrah buffaloes of a closed organized herd. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 80(5): 467-469

LWSI, 1970. Patterns of Transit Losses. Livestock Weather Safety Index, Livestock Conservation, Inc., Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Manjari, P., I. Hyder, S. Uniyal, R. Huozha and S.K. Rastogi. 2016. Adaptation of Tarai buffaloes to seasonal variations as indicated by haematological profile. Buffalo Bull., 35(2):165-171. Available on:

McDowell, R.E., N.W. Hooven and J.K. Camoens. 1976. Effect of climate on performance of Holsteins in first lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 59(5): 965-971. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302 (76)84305-6

Mech, A., A. Dhali, B. Prakash and C. Rajkhowa. 2008. Variation in milk yield and milk composition during the entire lactation period in Mithun cows (Bos frontalis). Livestock Research for Rural Development, 20(5): 1-9

Oser, B.L. 1979. Hawk's Physiological Chemistry, 14th ed. McGraw-Hill publishing Co., Ltd, New York, USA. p. 437-440.

Ozrenk, E. and S.S. Inci. 2008. The effects of seasonal varieties on the composition of cow milk in Van province. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7(1): 161-164. DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2008.161.164

Rajeevie, M.K. Potoenik and J.E. Levstek. 2003. Correlations between somatic cells count and milk composition with regard to the season. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 68(3): 221-226. Available on:

Reichmuth, J. 1975. Somatic cell counting - interpretation of results. In Proceeding of Seminar on Mastitis Control, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium.

Roy, B., R.K. Mehla. and S.K. Sirohi. 2004. Influence of milk yield, parity, stage of Lactation and body weight on urea and protein concentration in milk Murrah buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 16(9): 1285-1290. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2003.1285

Schalm, O.W., E.J. Carroll and N.C. Jain. 1971. Number and types of somatic cells in normal and mastitic milk, p. 94-127. In Schalm, O.W., E.J., Caroll and N.C. Jain (eds.) Bovine Mastitis, 1st edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA.

Şekerden, O. 1999. Factors affecting milk composition and changes in milk composition with lactation stage in Anatolian buffaloes. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 23(6): 505-510. Avauilable on:

Sevi, A., M. Albenzio, R. Marino, A. Santillo and A. Muscio. 2004. Effects of lambing season and stage of lactation on ewe milk quality. Small Ruminant Res., 51(3): 251-259. DOI: 10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00196-2

Sharma, R.B., M.M. Kumar and V. Pathak. 2002. Effect of different seasons on cross-bred cow milk composition and paneer yield in sub-Himalayan region. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 15(4): 528-530. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2002.528

Singh, M. and R.S. Ludri. 2001. Somatic cell counts in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during different stages of lactation, parity and season. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 14(2): 189-192. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2001.189