Prevalence and associated risk factors of giardiasis in buffalo calves of nomadic communities, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Main Article Content

Deepika Negi Mohd Rashid Maninder Singh Mohd Ashraf Malik Harsh Kumar Sharma

Abstract

Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal disease prevalent among animals and humans worldwide. In this regard, a study was conducted to assess prevalence and associated risk factors for giardiasis in buffaloes calves reared by nomadic communities of Jammu and Kashmir, India. One hundred twenty faecal samples from buffaloes calves of age up to 1 year were collected and tested by Formol ether sedimentation and Lugol’s iodine staining technique. Formol ether sedimentation gave higher prevalence 28.33% than Lugol’s iodine staining technique (24.16%. The highest prevalence was observed in females (31.32%), in age group of 3 to 6 months (46.88%) and in monsoon season (53.12%). Prevalence was higher in diarrhoeal calves (32.78%) than non-diarrhoeal ones (23.72%). High risk of infection was observed in non-dewormed calves (30%), those drinking stream water (37.5%) or wallowed in contaminated water (32%) and belong to water-clogged areas (34.28%). Identification of species was done using direct immunochromatographic assay. The study highlights association of water and sanitation with Giardia infection in areas studied.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
NEGI, Deepika et al. Prevalence and associated risk factors of giardiasis in buffalo calves of nomadic communities, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Buffalo Bulletin, [S.l.], v. 41, n. 3, p. 423-430, sep. 2022. ISSN 2539-5696. Available at: <https://kuojs.lib.ku.ac.th/index.php/BufBu/article/view/3223>. Date accessed: 02 dec. 2022.
Section
Original Article

References

Adam, R.D. 2001. Biology of Giardia lamblia. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 14(3): 447-475.

Ayaz, S., M. Ullah, F.U. Khan, A. Bibi, S. Noreen, H. Rahim and M. Akhtar. 2010. Epidemiological studies and molecular diagnosis of Giardiasis in Bovine. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences, 8(2): 148-155. Available on: http://pjlss.edu.pk/pdf_files/2010_2/148-155%20(sultan-final).pdf

Ballweber, L.R., L. Xiao, D.D. Bowman, G. Kahn and V.A. Cama. 2010. Giardiasis in dogs and cats: Update on epidemiology and public health significance. Trends Parasitol., 26(4): 180-189. DOI: 10.1016/j.pt.2010.02.005

Barigye, R., N.W. Dyer, T.K. Newell, M.L. Khaitsa, J.M. Trout, M. Santin and R. Fayer. 2008. Molecular and immunohistochemical detection of assemblage E, Giardia duodenalis in scouring north Dakota calves. Vet. Parasitol., 157(3-4): 196-202. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.07.033

Das, M., D.K. Deka, P.C. Sarmah, S. Islam and R. Laha. 2015. Giardia duodenalis infection in dairy cattle of Assam, India. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 10(12): 911-917. DOI: 10.3923/ajava.2015.911.917

Heitman, T.L., L.M. Frederick, J.R. Viste, N.J. Guselle, U.M. Morgan, R.C.A. Thompson and M.E. Olson. 2002. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from wildlife, human, and agricultural sources in the North Saskatchewan River Basin in Alberta, Canada. Can. J. Microbiol., 48(6): 530-541. DOI: 10.1139/w02-047

Helmy, Y.A., C. Klotz, H. Wilking, J. Krücken, K. Nöckler, G. Von Samson-Himmelstjerna, K.H. Zessin and T. Aebischer. 2014. Epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis infection in ruminant livestock and children in the Ismailia province of Egypt: Insights by genetic characterization. Parasite Vector., 7(231): 1-11. Available on: https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1756-3305-7-321.pdf

Hoque, M.E., V.T. Hope, T. Kjellström, R. Scragg and R. Lay-Yee. 2002. Risk of giardiasis in Aucklanders: A case-control study. Int. J. Infect. Dis., 6(3): 191-197. DOI: 10.1016/s1201-9712(02)90110-4

Kang, G., M.S. Mathew, D.P. Rajan, J.D. Daniel, M.M. Mathan, V.I. Mathan and J.P. Muliyil. 1998. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in rural Southern Indians. Trop. Med. Int. Healht, 3(1): 70-75. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.1998.00175.x

Karanis, P., I. Sotiriadou, V. Kartashev, C. Kourenti, N. Tsvetkova and K. Stojanova. 2006. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water supplies of Russia and Bulgaria. Environ. Res., 102(3): 260-271. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.05.005

O’Handley, R.M., A.G. Buret, T.A. McAllister, M. Jelinski and M.E. Olson. 2001. Giardiasis in dairy calves: Effects of fenbendazole treatment on intestinal structure and function. Int. J. Parasitol., 31(1): 73-79. DOI: 10.1016/s0020-7519(00)00148-x

Plutzer, J., P. Karanis, K. Domokos, A. Törökné and K. Márialigeti. 2008. Detection and characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Hungarian raw, surface and sewage water samples by IFT, PCR and sequence analysis of the SSUrRNA and GDH genes. Int. J. Hyg. Envir. Heal., 211(5-6): 524-533. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.04.004

Sharma, S. 2012. Epidemiological investigation of Giardiosis in Animals and Humans, M.V. Sc. Thesis, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu, India.

Singh, B.B., R. Sharma, J.K. Sharma, H.S. Banga, H. Kumar, R.S. Aulakh and J.P.S. Gill. 2008. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infection in cattle. J. Vet. Parasitol., 22: 91-92.

Suman, M., M. Alam, S. Pun, A. Khair, S. Ahmed and R. Uchida. 2013. Prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection in children and calves in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 9(2): 177-182.

Thompson, R.C. A. and P.T. Monis. 2004. Variation in giardia: Implications for taxonomy and epidemiology. Adv. Parasitol., 58: 69-137. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-308X(04)58002-8

Trout, J.M., M. Santín, E. Greiner and R. Fayer. 2004. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in pre-weaned dairy calves. Vet. Parasitol., 124(3-4): 179-186. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.07.010