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A total of 491 buffaloes (Murrah and non-descript) reared under unorganized system from semi-arid and arid areas of Rajasthan, India, were screened for their reproductive status. These were screened by history taking, rectal palpation, Ultrasonography and follow up. Out of these screened animals 65.59% were of normal reproductive status (Involved recently parturiated, pregnant etc. animals) while remaining included 11% cases of delayed puberty, 7.94% of delayed post-partum estrus, 5.5% of anestrus/ subestrus, 3.87% of repeat breeding, 2.85% of prolapse, 2.44% of infectious infertility and only 0.81% cases were of cystic ovarian degeneration (COD). Thirty animals were given bypass fat and area specific mineral mixture (ASMM) following parturition till 90 days postpartum, and results were compared with 20 animals from Control group. The uterus of animals given bypass fat and ASMM took significantly less time (24.50±0.34 mean days) for involution than Control group (33±0.61 mean days) also Experimental group took significantly less days (62.60±0.77 mean days) to show first estrus postpartum than Control group (87.00±0.44 mean days). First AI conception rate of Experimental group (60%) was also better than Control group (45%).
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