Effect of inclusion of palm kernel meal (Elaeis guineensis) in the concentrate mixture on nutrient utilization in graded Murrah buffalo bulls

Main Article Content

Nuti Eshwar Srinivas Kumar Dhulipalla Konka Raja Kishore Kallam Naga Raja Kumari


The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of inclusion of palm kernel meal (PKM) in the diet on intake, mineral balances and nutrient utilization in buffalo bulls. In 4x4 LSD, four graded Murrah buffalo bulls were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (T1 to T4) comprising of green fodder viz. Super Napier, paddy straw and concentrate mixture. In the concentrate mixture, palm kernel meal is incorporated at 0 (T1; Control), 10 (T2), 15 (T3) and 20 (T4) percent levels. All the concentrate mixtures were made iso-nitrogenous. Buffalo bulls in both the groups were fed to meet the nutrient requirements as per ICAR (2013) standards. Inclusion of PKM up to 20% level in the concentrate mixture had no effect (P>0.05) on the digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF, hemi-cellulose and cellulose as compared to the control. All the buffalo bulls were in positive N, Ca and P balance. The average DMI of buffalo bulls expressed as g/kg W0.75 or as % BW was comparable among the treatments. Inclusion of PKM at varying levels in the concentrate mixture had no significant effect (P>0.05) on DCP contents expressed as % in the diet consumed or as g/kg W0.75. However, the TDN contents expressed as % in the diet consumed decreased (P<0.05) with increased levels of inclusion of PKM from 0 to 20% level in the concentrate mixtures. Inclusion of palm kernel meal at 10, 15 and 20% level in the concentrate mixtures resulted in decreased feed cost by ₹ 0.73, 1.09 and 1.46 as compared to the control. It is concluded that PKM can be included up to 20% level in the concentrate mixture of buffalo bulls without any adverse effects.

Article Details

How to Cite
ESHWAR, Nuti et al. Effect of inclusion of palm kernel meal (Elaeis guineensis) in the concentrate mixture on nutrient utilization in graded Murrah buffalo bulls. Buffalo Bulletin, [S.l.], v. 40, n. 3, p. 465-473, sep. 2021. ISSN 2539-5696. Available at: <https://kuojs.lib.ku.ac.th/index.php/BufBu/article/view/3722>. Date accessed: 21 oct. 2021.
Original Article


Abdullah, N., H. Hanita, Y. Ho, H. Kudo, S. Julaludin and M. Ivan. 1995. The effects of bentonite on rumen protozoal population and rumen fluid characteristics of sheep fed palm kernel cake. Asian-Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 8(3):249-254. Doi: 10.5713/ajas.1995.249

Abubakr, A.R., A.R. Alimon, H. Yaakub, N. Abdullah and M. Ivan. 2013. Growth, nitrogen metabolism and carcass composition of goats fed palm oil by-products. Small Ruminant Res., 112(1-3): 91-96. DOI:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.11.003

Adesehinwa, A.O.K. 2007. Utilization of Palm kernel cake as a replacement for maize in diets of growing pigs: Effects on performance, serum metabolites, nutrient digestibility and cost of feed conversion. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 13: 693-600. Available on: https://www.agrojournal.org/13/05-13-07.pdf

AOAC, 2007. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, USA.

Chanjula, P., Y. Siriwathananukul and A. Lawpetchara. 2011. Effect of feeding rubber seed kernel and palm kernel cake in combination on nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation characteristics, and microbial populations in goats fed on Briachiaria humidicola hay-based diets. Asian-Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 24(1):73-81. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2011.10171

Cunha, O.F.R., J.N.M. Neiva, R.P. Maciel, J. Restle, V.L. Araujo, J. Paiva and F.R.C. Miotto. 2013. Palm (Elaeis guineensis L.) kernel cake in diets for dairy cows. Revista de Ciencias Agrarias, 34(1): 445-454. DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359.2013v34n1p445

Duncan, D.B. 1957. Multiple range tests for correlated and heteroscedastic means. Biometrics, 13(2): 164-176. DOI: 10.2307/2527799

Fereira, A.C., R.O. Lopes, A.B. Regina, G.G.C. Pinto de, R.N.S. Vaz and P.O. Andrade. 2012. Intake, digestibility and intake behaviour in cattle fed different levels of palm kernel cake. Rev. MVZ Cordoba, 17(3): 3105-3112. DOI: 10.21897/rmvz.208

Ferro, P.V. and A.B. Ham. 1957. A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of calcium. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 28(2): 208-217. DOI: 10.1093/ajcp/28.2_ts.208

Fiske, C.H. and Y.S. Row. 1925. Assay of Phosphatase enzyme. J. Biol. Chem., 66: 375-400.
ICAR. 2013. Nutrient Requirement of Livestock and Poultry. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India

Macome, F., O. Lopes, B. Regina, A.G.G. Leal, B. Pires and S.M. Costa Alves Da. 2011. Productive performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets containing different levels of palm kernel cake. Rev. MVZ Córdoba, 16(3): 2659-2667. DOI: 10.21897/rmvz.266

Pimentel, L.R., F.F.D. Silva, R.R. Silva, A.R. Schio, E.S.D.O. Rodrigues and P.A.D. Oliveira. 2015. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet. Acta Scientiarum - Animal Sciences, 37(1): 83-89. DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v37i1.23391

Pullaiah, K.V.R. 2013. Evaluation of complete rations containing Palm Kernel Meal (Elaeis guineensis) and Shea Nut Meal (Vitellaria paradoxa) in Sheep and Goats. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Sese, B.T., O.S. George and C.B. Agbovu. 2014. Effects of graded levels of full fat palm kernel meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics in broiler chicks. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 4(12): 19-28.

Silva, R.L.N., R.L. Oliveira, O.L. Ribeiro, A.G. Leão, G.G. Carvalho, A.C. Ferreira, L.F.B. Pinto and E.S. Pereira. 2013. Palm kernel cake for lactating cows in pasture: intake, digestibility, and blood parameters. Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 12(2): 257-264. DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2013.e42

Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran. 1994. Statistical Methods, 7th ed. The Iowa State University, Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.

SPSS. 2008. Statistical Packages for Social Sciences, Version 24.0, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Inc., Illinois, USA.

Sundu, B., A. Kumar and J. Dingle. 2006. Palm kernel meal in broiler diets: effect on chicken performance and health. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 62(2): 316-325. DOI: 10.1079/WPS2005100

Talapatra, S.K., S.C. Ray and K.C. Sen. 1940. The analysis of mineral constituents in biological materials. 1. Estimation of phosphorus, chlorine, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in food-stuffs. Indian J. Vet. Sci., 10: 243-258.

Tipu, M.A., F. Ahmad, A. Khalique, M.N. Haque, R.H. Mirza and U. Tayyab. 2014. Replacement of cotton seed cake with palm kernel cake in growing Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 24(Suppl.1): 24-27.

Van Soest, P.V., J.B. Robertson and B.A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74(10): 3583-3597. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2