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This study aimed to determine utility of a short-term controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol for hormonal therapy to large ovarian cysts and inactive ovaries in postpartum anestrous Mehsana buffaloes under field conditions in a highland area of Thailand. Anestrous buffaloes were diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography as having ovarian cysts (n=5) or inactive ovaries (n=14). These 19 buffaloes were submitted to a CIDR-prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)- pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG)-based protocol with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injections. Cows that exhibited estrus were bred with bulls. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography at 35 days after mating; the non-pregnant cows were continuously resynchronized by the same protocol. In the initial synchronization and resynchronization phases, the estrous and pregnancy rates did not differ between buffaloes diagnosed with large ovarian cysts or inactive ovaries. Although the pregnancy outcome did not differ between the two groups, 57.9% of the anestrous Mehsana buffaloes became pregnant after therapy with the short-term CIDRbased protocol. Thus, these data demonstrated that a CIDR-PGF2α-PMSG-based protocol with hCG injection effectively treated large cystic and inactive ovaries in infertile buffaloes, allowing for subsequent pregnancy; this hormonal therapy is recommended for anestrous Mehsana buffaloes under field conditions in the highland areas of Thailand.