Applications of transabdominal ultrasonography in bovine reproduction: A review

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Devender - Ramesh Kumar Chandolia


The non-invasive nature of ultrasonography makes it an important clinical and research tool in bovine reproduction and obstetrics. Ultrasound techniques are becoming increasingly important in animal reproduction and obstetrics and these techniques are helpful in evaluation of various disease conditions of uterus during advance pregnancy in bovines. Accordingly, understanding the use of ultrasound technology is of utmost importance in animal sciences, since ultrasound examinations are now a routine part of diagnostic workups in reproduction and obstetrics. Up to now, most of studies were conducted to assess the status of fetal and uterine structures by trans-rectal ultrasonography, but sometimes it was found to be inefficient in judging the complete status of fetal and uterine structures during mid and advance pregnancy when the fetus is located deep into the abdominal cavity. So, in modern times transabdominal ultrasonography is getting popularity over trans-rectal ultrasonography in bovines during mid and advance gestation to determine the complete status of pregnant animals. The new information that has been generated by use of transabdominal ultrasonography has thrown light on diagnostic and research aspects and created new areas for research. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination of the reproductive tract can provide useful information related to fetal viability, diagnosis of mid to late term pregnancies, gestational age, assessment of fetus and fetal organs, placentomes, fetal fluids, uterine wall, umbilicus, and identification of developmental abnormalities. To best of my knowledge this is the first review of applications of transabdominal ultrasonography in bovine reproduction because literature related to transabdominal ultrasonography in bovine reproduction and obstetrics is very scanty.


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-, Devender; CHANDOLIA, Ramesh Kumar. Applications of transabdominal ultrasonography in bovine reproduction: A review. Buffalo Bulletin, [S.l.], v. 41, n. 2, p. 225-240, june 2022. ISSN 2539-5696. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 16 aug. 2022.
Review Article


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