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Rumen microorganism community population and diversity in the swamp buffloes (Bubalus bulalis) were assessed by 4 types of treated rice straw. Four, yearling swamp buffalo were randomly assigned to a 4x4 Latin square design. The animals were fed with concentrate at 0.5%BW and were offered ad libitum with roughages, rice straw (RS), urea treated rice straw (UTS), yeast treated rice straw (YTS) and urea-lime treated rice straw (ULTS). It was found that intake and ruminal NH3-N were significantly different among dietary treatments and were found higher in swamp buffalo fed with YTS (P<0.05). Total VFAs were significantly different with roughage in swamp buffalo. Molar proportions of individual VFA in swamp buffalo were not affected by roughage sources. Feeding with YTS or ULTS increased cellulolytic bacteria population, particularly, the distribution of predominant bacteria; F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens, and R. albus, respectively. The results from this study suggest that swamp buffaloes fed on yeast treated rice straw could improve rumen fermentation efficiency, rumen fibrolytic microbes’ quantity and rumen ecology for the host buffaloes.
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