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A postpartum swamp buffalo with a high body condition score (4.5/5) that did not show any signs of heat after calving (days open = 122 days) was submitted for reproductive examination. The buffalo was milked every morning and suckled after that the whole day. On examination, an ovarian cyst of about 3 cm diameter was palpated rectally in the left ovary, which was confirmed by transrectal ultrasonography and by measuring the plasma progesterone level 7 days later. The case was treated with a common treatment regimen of gonadotropin releasing hormone followed by prostaglandin F2 alpha 7 days later. The buffalo returned to estrus and was mated with a bull 16 days after the onset of treatment. This case study suggests that a regular postpartum reproductive examination should be performed for a timely diagnosis of problems, and that treatment with a standard hormonal protocol can resolve cases of ovarian cyst in swamp buffaloes.