Main Article Content
Trypanosomosis also known as ‘Surra’ caused by Trypanosoma evansi is of significant economic importance in livestock production. Diagnosis of subclinical infection and carrier state of disease is far difficult. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare parasitological, serological and molecular diagnostic tests for detecting subclinical trypanosomosis in two dairy herds of Murrah buffalo (n=27) and crossbred cattle (n=22) in Hisar district of Haryana. Peripheral blood samples collected from all the animals were subjected to blood smear examination and DNA isolation for molecular detection by PCR, and like-wise serum samples were collected and subjected to latex agglutination test (TE-LAT) for T. evansi antigen detection. PCR products from positive samples were purified and sequenced for confirmation of T. evansi DNA. None of the animals in the two herds was found positive for T. evansi parasites by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. In buffalo farm, 29.62% samples each were found moderately and weak positive by TE-LAT, whereas PCR assay test yielded 40.74% samples positive for T. evansi DNA. In cattle farm, TE-LAT showed 18.18%, 31.89% and 9.09% samples to be strong, moderate and weak positive, whereas 50% samples were found PCR-positive for T. evansi DNA. Agreement among TE-LAT and PCR assay, as expressed by the kappa value, was found to be poor. To conclude, each test has its own merits and limitations. While TE-LAT is suitable for screening purpose, PCR assay confirms parasite in blood. For clinical diagnosis, results of laboratory diagnostic tests must, however, be correlated clinically before initiating the therapy.
Ananyutthawongese, C.T., K. Saengsombut, W. Sukhumsirichat, W. Uthaisang, N. Sarataphan and K. Chansiri. 1999. Detection of bovine hemoparasite infection using multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.ScienceAsia, 25: 85-90. Available on: http://www.scienceasia.org/1999.25.n2/v25_085_090.pdf
Desquesnes, M. 2004. Livestock Trypanosomosis and Their Vectors in Latin America. OIE World Organization for Animal Health, Paris, France. p. 7-32. Available on: https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D9818.PDF
Desquesnes, M., G. Bossard, S. Thévenon, D. Patrel, S. Ravel, D. Pavlovic, S. Herder, O. Patout, E. Lepetitcolin, P. Hollzmuller, D. Berthier, P. Jacquiet and G. Cuny. 2009. Development and application of an antibody-ELISA to follow up a Trypanosoma evansi outbreak in a dromedary camel herd in France. Vet. Parasitol., 162(3-4): 214-220. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.03.033
Gonzales, J.L., T.W. Jones, K. Picozzi and H.R. Cuellar. 2003. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of bovine trypanosomiasis and epidemiological surveillance in Bolivia. Kinetoplastid Biology and Disease, 2(8): 1-14. DOI: 10.1186/1475-9292-2-8
Herrera, H.M., A.M.R. Davila, A. Norek, U.G. Abreu, S.S. Souza, P.S. D’Andrea and A.M. Jansen. 2004. Enzootiology of Trypanosoma evansi in Pantanal, Brazil. Vet. Parasitol., 125(3-4): 263-275. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.07.013
Holland, G., F. Claes, L.N. My, N.G. Than, P.T. Tam, D. Verloo, P. Büscher, B. Goddeeris and J. Vercruysse. 2001. A comparative evaluation of parasitological tests and a PCR for Trypanosoma evansi diagnosis in experimentally infected water buffaloes. Vet. Parasitol., 97(1): 23-33. DOI: 10.1016/s0304-4017(01)00381-8
Junior, O.L.F., P.H. Sampaio, L.R. Gonçalves, M.R. André, R.Z. Machado, G. Wijffels and F.A. Cadioli. 2019. Comparison of conventional and molecular techniques for Trypanosoma vivax diagnosis in experimentally infected cattle. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. V., 28(2): 203-209. DOI: 10.1590/s1984-29612019034
Narladkar, B.W. 2018. Projected economic losses due to vector and vector-borne parasitic diseases in livestock of India and its significance in implementing the concept of integrated practices for vector management, Vet. World, 11(2): 151-160. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.151-160
Pathak, K.M.L. and M.B. Chhabra. 2011. Trypanosomosis of livestock in India: A review of two decades. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 81(7): 653-660.
Penchenier, L., V. Dumas, P. Grebaut, J.M. Reifenberg and G. Cuny. 1996. Improvement of blood and fly gut processing for PCR diagnosis of trypanosomosis. Parasite, 3(4): 387-389. DOI: 10.1051/parasite/1996034387
Ramírez-Iglesias, J.R., M.C. Eleizalde, E. Gómez-Piñeres and M. Mendoza. 2011. Trypanosoma evansi: A comparative study of four diagnostic techniques for trypanosomosis using rabbit as an experimental model. Exp. Parasitol., 128(1): 91-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2011.02.010
Rayulu, V.C., S.S. Chaudhri and A. Singh. 2009. Evaluation of parasitological and monoclonal antibody based assays in detection of Trypanosoma evansi infection in animals. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 79(10): 978-981.
Reema, S.S. Chaudhri and A. Singh. 2012. Examination of cross-reactivity among Trypanosoma evansi, Theileriaannulataand Babesia bigemina by Te-mAB-LAT and PCR. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 82(8): 812-817.
Shyma, K.P., S.K. Gupta, A. Singh, S.S. Chaudhary and J.P. Gupta. 2012. Monoclonal antibody based latex agglutination test for the diagnosis of trypanosomosis in cattle. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research, 2(1): 1-4.
Singh, A. and S.S. Chaudhri. 2002. Comparison of efficiency of parasitological methods with Ag-ELISA in Trypanosoma evansi infected crossbred calves. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 72(2): 117-119.
Singh, N., K.M.L. Pathak and R. Kumar. 2004. A comparative evaluation of parasitological, serological and DNA amplification methods for diagnosis of natural Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels. Vet. Parasitol., 126(4): 365-373. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.08.013
Singh, V., K.P. Shyma and J.P. Gupta. 2014. Changing trends in diagnostics of trypanosomosis in animals. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 84(8): 811-818.
Singla, L.D., A. Sharma, P. Kaur and M.S. Bal. 2015. Comparative evaluation of agglutination assay with microscopy and polymerase chain reaction for detection of Trypanosoma evansi in bovines of Punjab. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 85(11): 1164-1166.
Sumbria, D., L.D. Singla, A. Sharma, A.D. Moudgil and M.S. Bal. 2014. Equine trypanosomosis in central and western Punjab: Prevalence, haemato-biochemical response and associated risk factors. Acta Trop., 138: 44-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.06.003
Thammasart, S., R. Kanitpunp, M. Saithasao and Y. Kashiwazaki. 2001. Preliminary studies by ELISA on the antigen and antibody with Trypanosoma evansi in cattle. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 33(3): 189-199. DOI: 10.1023/a:1010310620628