Comparative therapeutic efficacy of hypertonic saline solution andisotonic normal saline for fore-stomach impaction disorders in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
Keywords:Bubalus bubalis, buffaloes, hemato-biochemical, hypertonic saline solution, impaction, normal saline solution
The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the comparative therapeutic efficacy of isotonic (0.9%) saline solution (NSS) and hypertonic (7.5%) saline solution (HSS) along with supportive medical treatment in buffaloes suffered with forestomach impaction. A total of 26 buffaloes were undertaken in two groups. In Group 1, twenty buffaloes were infused with isotonic (0.9%) saline solution 20 ml/kg body weight and in Group 2 six buffaloes were infused with hypertonic saline solution (7.5%) 2 ml/kg. The physical parameters (heart rate and respiration rate) were decreased more significantly in Group 1 after treatment. Similar trend was observed in the pretreatment hematological parameters viz. Hb, PCV, TLC, neutrophil count and ESR after fluid therapy which was indicative of expansion of plasma volume. There was not much effect on rumen liquor parameters after fluid therapy. The biochemical profile (Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, total protein, glucose, globulin and fibrinogen) was more significantly declined in Group 1 after fluid therapy, whereas plasma sodium and chloride levels significantly increased, and plasma potassium level more significantly decreased in Group 2. The recovery rates were 60% and 17% respectively in Group 1 and Group 2. Thus, Isotonic (0.9%) saline solution appears to more effective in therapeutic management of forestomach impaction in buffaloes.
Cambier, C., V. Ratz, F. Rollin, A. Frans, T. Clerbaux and P. Gustin. 1997. The effects of hypertonic saline in healthy and diseased animals. Vet. Res. Commun., 21: 303-316. DOI: 10.1023/a:1005804102715
Constable, P.D., M. Schmell, W.W. Muir, G.F. Hoffsis and E.R. Shertel. 1991. Hemodynamic response of endotoxemic calves to treatment with small-volume hypertonic saline solution. Am. J. Vet. Res., 52(7): 981-989.
Constable, P.D., W.W. Muir and G.F. Hoffsis. 1994. Hypertonic saline is a negative inotropic agent in normovolumic dogs. Am. J. Physio., 267(2): 667-677. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.1994.267.2.H667
Fantoni, D.T., J.O.C. Aujler, F. Futema, S.R.G. Cortopassi, E.R. Migliati, M. Faustino and C.M. De Oliveira. 1989. Intravenous administration of hypertonic sodium chloride solution with dextran or isotonic sodium chloride solution for treatment of septic shock secondary to pyometra in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 215(9): 1283-1287.
Flores, R.V., C.A. Souza, N.M. Ocarino, V.A. Gheller, M.J. Lopes, M.S. Palhares and R. Serakides. 2006. Hypertonic and isotonic saline solutions in dehydration therapy in neonate calves: Comparison of clinical profile and serum and urinary concentrations of electrolytes. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 15(3): 131-142. DOI: 10.1007/s00580-006-0629-z
Garry, F. 1990. Symposium on bovine digestive disorders. Vet. Med., 85: 634-670.
Garry, F.B. 2002. Indigestion in ruminants, p. 748-752. In Smith, B.P. (ed). Large Animal Internal Medicine, 3rd ed. Mosby Inc., Philadelphia, USA. p. 748-752.
Jain, N.C. 1986. Schalms Veterinary Hematology, 4th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA. p. 1-7, 35-47, 103-104, 532-542.
Jean, G.S., P.D. Constable and K. Yvorchunk. 1993. The Clinical use of hypertonic saline solution in food animals with haemorrhagic and endotoxic shock. Agriculture Practices, 14: 6-11.
Kien, N.D., J.A. Reitan, D.A. White, W. Chih-Hsiung and J.H. Eisele. 1991. Cardiac contractility and blood flow distribution following resuscitation with 7.5% percent hypertonic saline in anesthetized dogs. Cir. Shock, 35(2): 109-116.
Kline, E.E., J.R. Meyer, D.R. Nelson and M.A. Menon. 1983. Abomasal impaction in sheep. Vet. Rec., 113: 177-179.
Moon, P.F., J.R. Synder, S.C. Haskins, P.R. Peron and G.C. Kramer. 1991. Effects of a highly concentrated hypertonic saline-dextran volume expander on cardiopulmonary function in anesthetized normovolemic horses. Am. J. Vet. Res., 52(10): 1611-1618.
Poli-de-Figueiredo, L.F., R.J. Cruz, P. Sannomiya and M. Rocha-E-Silva. 2006. Mechanisms of action of hypertonic saline resuscitation in severe sepsis and septic shock. Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders - Drug Targets, 6(2): 201-206. DOI: 10.2174/187153006777442305
Radostits, O.M., C.C. Gay, D.C. Blood and K.W. Hinchcliff. 2000. A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses, 9th ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA. p. 77-370.
Richards, A.M., K. Ikram, T.G. Yandle, M.G. Nicholls, M.W.I. Webster and E.A. Espiner. 1985. Renal, haemodynamic, and hormonal effects of human alpha atrial natriuretic peptide in healthy volunteers Renal haemodynamic and hormonal effects of human alpha atrial natriuretic peptide in healthy volunteers. The Lancet, 1(8428): 545-549. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(85)91207-3
Rocha-e-Silva, M. Negraes, G.A. Soares, A.M. Pontieri and L. Loppnow. 1986. Hypertonic resuscitation from severe hemorrhagic shock: Patterns of regional circulation. Circulatory Shock, 19(2): 165-175.
Roeder, B.L., C.L. Su and G.B. Schaalje. 1997. Acute effects of intravenously administrated hypertonic saline solution on transruminal rehydration in dairy cow. Am. J. Vet. Res., 58(5): 549-554.
Roussel, A.J. 1989. Principles and mechanics of fluid therapy in calves. Comp. Cont. Educ. Pract., 5(Suppl): 332-339.
Saxena, R. 2003. Studies on clinico- haemotobiochemical and electro-cardiographic alterations associated with fluid therapy in dogs and buffaloes. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.
Schertel, E.R., A.K. Valentine, A.M. Rademarkers and W.W. Muir. 1990. Influence of 7% per cent NaCl on the mechanical properties of the systemic circulation in the hypovolemic dog. Circulatory Shock, 31(2): 203-214.
Singh, D.V., R.V. Singh and S.P.S. Sodhi. 2002. Effect of hypertonic saline solution infusion on haemodynamics of endotoxemic buffalo calves. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 72(12): 1083-1086.
Singh, D.V., R.V. Singh and S.P.S. Sodhi. 2007. ECG studies during bovine endotoxic shock and various treatment. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 77: 308-313.
Smith, G.J., G.C. Kramar and P. Perron. 1985. A comparison of several hypertonic solutions for resuscitation of bled sheep. J. Surg. Res., 39(6): 517-528. DOI: 10.1016/0022-4804(85)90120-9
Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran. 1989. Statistical Methods, 8th ed. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Tyler, J.W., E.G. Welles, R.J. Erskine, H.C. Lin, M.A. Williams, J.S. Spano, J.T. Gsalin and C.K.A. Mc. 1994. Clinical and clinicopathologic changes in cows with endotoxic-induced mastitis treated with small volumes of isotonic or hypertonic sodium chloride administered intravenously. Am. J. Vet. Res., 55(2): 278-287.
Velasco, I.T., V. Pontieri, M. Rocha-e-Silva and O.V. Lopes. 1980. Hyperosmotic NaCl and severe haemorrhagic shock. Am. J. Physio., 239(5): 664-673. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.1980.239.5.H664
Walsh, J.C. and G.C. Kramer. 1991. Resuscitation of hypovolemic sheep with hypertonic saline/dextran: the role of dextran resuscitation of hypovolemic sheep with hypertonic saline dextran and the role of dextran. Circulatory Shock, 34(3): 336-343.
Ward, J.L., D.F. Smith, S.C. Fubini and Y.T. Grohn. 1993. Comparison of 0.9, 3.6, and 7.2% NaCl for correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in sheepComparison of 0.9, 3.6 and 7.2% sodium chloride for correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic, hyperkalemic metabolic alkalosis in sheep. Am. J. Vet. Res., 54(7): 1160-1169.