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A total numbers of 100 adult buffaloes was selected for the study from Cantonment Board MHOW and Indore Slaughter Houses and screened for infection. The cytology, aerobic bacterial plate count, gross and histopathological changes of positive cases were studied to determine and differentiate acute, subacute and chronic endometritis. Examination of uterus of 100 buffaloes revealed inflammatory changes of endometritis in 78 (78%) cases and classified nine cases under acute endometritis (11.53%), 31 cases of subacute endometritis (39.74), 38 cases of chronic endometritis (48.71%) and 22 cases of non specific affections (28.20%). In most cases of acute endometritis, the uterus was thick, oedematous and high amount of exudate was present. Microscopically, sub endometrium was heavily infiltrated with multilobed inflammatory cells around uterine glands and blood vessels. Endometrial glands were proliferated and cystic at places with haemorrhage in different sites of stroma. MacCallum-Goodpasture staining revealed presence of coccobacillary gram negative bacteria in 2 cases. In subacute endometritis, the uterus was firm, thick and enlarged uterine horns revealed presence of moderate mucinous exudate, denudation, oedema, vascular wall hyalinization, infiltration of mainly lymphocytes. In chronic endometritis, the uterus was thick, firm, indurated and corrugated with severe infiltration of sub endometrium by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, connective tissue proliferation and vascular hyalinization. Cytology, aerobic bacterial plate count (APC) and histopathology revealed significant changes in types, number of cells and inflammatory reaction. In acute endometritis cytology showed a rise in epithelial cells, neutrophils and degenerated macrophages, low number of lymphocytes and other cells. Aerobic bacterial plate count revealed highest count. In subacute endometritis cytology showed a rise in lymphocytes and low numbers of epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages and a fall in other cells. Aerobic bacterial plate count revealed lowest count in subacute as compared to acute endometritis. In chronic endometritis cytology revealed mainly epithelial cell casts, isolated epithelial cells being few, lymphocytes, few macrophages and mucin threads.The research findings indicate that cases of endometritis are common in buffaloes and uterine cytology can be used as a quick sensitive and specific diagnostic tool to assess the status of uterine pathology both in dead and live animals.