Inter-relationship of peripheral hormones (IGF-1, testosterone and growth hormone) with reproductive traits in male buffalo


  • Amit Kumar Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar, India
  • Gyan Singh Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, India
  • Jerome Andonissamy Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar, India
  • Pradeep Kumar Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar, India
  • Arjun Venkateshappa Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, India
  • Renu Bala Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar, India
  • Nisha Verma Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar, India
  • Chandra Shekhar Patil Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, India
  • Rakesh Kumar Sharma Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar, India



Bubalus bubalis, buffaloes, male, age, IGF-1, testosterone


This study was aimed to decipher the inter-relationship peripheral hormones [Insulin-like growth hormone (IGF-1), testosterone and growth hormone] with body weight, body condition score and scrotal circumfermnce across age-groups in male buffalo. Male buffalo (n=20) of different age groups viz. Group 1 (0 to 8 months), 2 (9 to 16 months), 3 (17 to 24 months) and 4 (25 to 32 months) were selected and Blood was collected along with body weight, body condition score and scrotal circumference. Significant difference (P<0.05) in the body weight, body condition core and scrotal circumference was observed between the groups. Peripheral IGF-1 level increased with age, highest in Group 4 (202.4±9.36 ng/ml). Similarly, testosterone was different between Group 1, 2 and 4, highest in Group 4 (1.73±0.02 ng/ml). Growth hormone, differed (P<0.05) between Group 1 (3.65±0.50 ng/ml), Group 3 (3.65±0.50 ng/ml) and Group 4 (8.56±1.96 ng/ml). Postive correlation (P<0.05) between various parameters (body weight, body condition score and scrotal circumference, testosterone and growth hormone) was observed. In conclusion, this study reports the age-related variations and inter-relationships of peripheral hormones with body weight, body condition score and scrotal circumference in male buffalo.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Andersson, M., J. Taponen, E. Koskinen and M. Dahlbom. 2004. Effect of insemination with doses of 2 or 15 million frozen-thawed spermatozoa and semen deposition site on pregnancy rate in dairy cows. Theriogenology, 61(7-8): 1583-1588. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2003.09.006

Anitha, A.K., J. Sarjan Rao, P.R. Suresh, S. Moorthy and R.Y. Kotilinga. 2011. A body condition score BCS system in Murrah buffaloes. Buffalo Bull., 30(1): 79-99. Available on:

Bongso, T.A., M.D. Hassan and W. Nordin. 1984. Relationship of scrotal circumference and testicular volume to age and body weight in the swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology, 22(2): 127-134. DOI: 10.1016/0093-691x(84)90425-4

Bourgon, S.L., M. Diel de Amorim, S.P. Miller and Y.R. Montanholi. 2017. Associations of blood parameters with age, feed efficiency and sampling routine in young beef bulls. Livest. Sci., 195: 27-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.003

Brito, L.F.C., A.D. Barth, R.E. Wilde and J.P. Kastelic. 2012. Effect of growth rate from 6 to 16 months of age on sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls. Theriogenology, 77(7): 1398-1405. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.11.003

Byrne, C.J., S. Fair, A.M. English, M. Cirot, C. Staub, P. Lonergan and D.A. Kenny. 2018. Plane of nutrition before and after 6 months of age in Holstein-Friesian bulls: II. Effects on metabolic and reproductive endocrinology and identification of physiological markers of puberty and sexual maturation. J. Dairy Sci., 101(4): 3460-3475. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13720

Byrne, C.J., S. Fair, A.M. English, C. Urh, H. Sauerwein, M.A. Crowe, P. Lonergan and D.A. Kenny. 2017. Effect of breed, plane of nutrition and age on growth, scrotal development, metabolite concentrations and on systemic gonadotropin and testosterone concentrations following a GnRH challenge in young dairy bulls. Theriogenology, 96: 58-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.04.002

Cao, E., Y. Chen, Z. Cui and P.R. Foster. 2003. Effect of freezing and thawing rates on denaturation of proteins in aqueous solutions. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 82(6): 684-690. DOI: 10.1002/bit.10612

Davies, H., G.R. Bignell, C. Cox, P. Stephens, S. Edkins, S. Clegg, J. Teague, H. Woffendin, M.J. Garnett, W. Bottomley and N. Davis. 2002. Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Nature, 417(6892): 949-954. DOI: 10.1038/nature00766

Devkota, B., K.I. Takahashi, S. Matsuzaki, M. Matsui, A. Miyamoto, N. Yamagishi, T. Osawa, T. Hashizume, Y. Izaike and Y.I. Miyake. 2011. Basal levels and GnRH-induced responses of peripheral testosterone and estrogen in Holstein bulls with poor semen quality. J. Reprod. Develop., 57(3): 373-378. DOI: 10.1262/jrd.10-136t

Edmonson, A.J., I.J. Lean, L.D. Weaver, T. Farver and G. Webster. 1989. A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 72(1): 68-78. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79081-0

Fabbrocini, A., C. Del Sorbo, G. Fasano and G. Sansone. 2000. Effect of differential addition of glycerol and pyruvate to extender on cryopreservation of Mediterranean buffalo (B. bubalis) spermatozoa. Theriogenology, 54(2): 193-207. DOI: 10.1016/s0093-691x(00)00341-1

Gokhale, S.B and R.L. Bhagat. 2000. Status of reproductive performance in rural buffaloes artificially inseminated using deep frozen semen. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 70(4): 366-368.

Gulia, S., M. Sarkar, V. Kumar, H.H.D. Meyer and B.S. Prakash. 2010. Divergent development of testosterone secretion in male zebu (Bos indicus) and crossbred cattle (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during growth. Trop. Anim. Health Pro., 42(6): 1143-1148. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-010-9538-x

Gunarajasingam, D., R. Rajamahendran, B.R. Downey and P.C. Lague. 1985. Testosterone secretion in young and adult buffalo bulls. Theriogenology, 24(2): 185-195. DOI: 10.1016/0093-691x(85)90182-7a

Hassan, A., S.M. Abo-Azma and T.F. Mostafa. 2008. Seminal plasma cotinine and insulin-like growth factor-I in idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermic smokers. BJU Int., 103(1): 108-111. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.07929.x

Henricks, D.M., A.J. Kouba, B.R. Lackey, W.R. Boone and S.L. Gray. 1998. Identification of insulin-like growth factor I in bovine seminal plasma and its receptor on spermatozoa: influence on sperm motility. Biol. Reprod., 59(2): 330-337. DOI: 10.1095/biolreprod59.2.330

Hoppener, J.W.M., P. de Pagter-Holthuizen, A.H.M. Geurts van Kessel, M. Jansen, S.D. Kittur, S.E. Antonarakis, C.J.M. Lips and J.S. Sussenbach. 1985. The human gene encoding insulin-like growth factor I is located on chromosome 12. Hum. Genet., 69(2): 157-160. DOI: 10.1007/BF00293288

Ipsa, E., V.F. Cruzat, J.N. Kagize, J.L. Yovich and K.N. Keane. 2019. Growth hormone and Insulin-like growth factor action in reproductive tissues. Front. Endocrinol., 10: 777. DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00777

Jadhav, V.G., B.S.B. Kumar and S. Pandita. 2018. Age-related changes in testicular parameters and their relationship to thyroid hormones and testosterone in male Murrah buffaloes. Arch. Tierzucht, 61(2): 191-195. DOI: 10.5194/aab-61-191-2018

Kastelic, J.P. 2013. Male involvement in fertility and factors affecting semen quality in bulls. Animal Frontiers, 3(4): 20-25. DOI: 10.2527/af.2013-0029

Kawate, N., A. Ohnari, I.N. Pathirana, M. Sakase, E.E. Büllesbach, M. Takahashi, T. Inaba and H. Tamada. 2011. Changes in plasma concentrations of insulin-like peptide 3 and testosterone from birth to pubertal age in beef bulls. Theriogenology, 76(9): 1632-1638. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.07.011

Kerr, D.E., J.G. Manns, B. Laarveld and M.I. Fehr. 1991. Profiles of serum IGF-I concentrations in calves from birth to eighteen months of age and in cows throughout the lactation cycle. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 71(3): 695-705. DOI: 10.4141/cjas91-085

Korejo, N., F. Parveen, M. Memon, R. Leghari, A. Sethar, H. Kumbhar, M. Memon, S. Kumbhar, R. Korejo, A. Channa and Q. Kalwar. 2019. Age-related changes in body weight, body conformation and scrotal circumference and prepubertal sexual behavior of Kundhi buffalo bull calves. Sindh University Research Journal Science Series, 51(1): 75-80. DOI: 10.26692/sujo/2019.01.14

Kumar, P., Suman, S. Pawaria, J. Dalal, S. Bhardwaj, S. Patil, A. Jerome and R.K. Sharma. 2019. Serum and seminal plasma IGF-1 associations with semen variables and effect of IGF-1 supplementation on semen freezing capacity in buffalo bulls. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 204: 101-110. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2019.03.010

Kumaresan, A. and M.R. Ansari. 2001. Evaluation of conception rate in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with reference to semen quality, stage of oestrus and inseminator. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 71(2): 144-145.

Lee, H.G., H. Hidari, S.K. Kang, Z.S. Hong, C.X. Xu, S.H. Kim, K.S. Seo, D.H. Yoon and Y.J. Choi. 2005. The relationships between plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) to growth pattern, and characteristics of plasma IGFBPs in steers. Asian-Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 18(11): 1575-1581. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2005.1575

Lee, H.S., Y.S. Park, J.S. Lee and J.T. Seo. 2016. Serum and seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in male infertility. Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine, 43(2): 97-101. DOI: 10.5653/cerm.2016.43.2.97

Lejeune, H., F. Chuzel, T. Thomas, O. Avallet, R. Habert, P. Durand and J. Saez. 1996. Paracrine regulation of Leydig cells. Annals Endocrinol., 57(1): 55-63.

Macpherson, M.L., R.C. Simmen, F.A. Simmen, J. Hernandez, B.R. Sheerin, D.D. Varner, P. Loomis, M.E. Cadario, C.D. Miller, S.P. Brinsko, S. Rigby and T.L. Blanchard. 2002. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and -5 in equine seminal plasma: association with sperm characteristics and fertility. Biol Reprod., 67: 648-654.

Mahmood, S., A. Kumar, R. Singh, M. Sarkar, G. Singh, M.R. Verma and G.V.P.P.S.R. Kumar. 2018. Scrotal circumference: A predictor of testosterone concentration and certain attributes of seminal vesicles influencing buffalo male fertility. Vet. World, 11(6): 739-747. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.739-747

Munoz, A., P. Trigo, C. Riber, V. Malonda and F. Castejon. 2011. A study of serum insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) concentrations in resting untrained Andalusian horses: Influence of age and gender. Vet. Med. Chech., 56(5): 231-242. DOI: 10.17221/1562-VETMED

Neirijnck, Y., M.D. Papaioannou and S. Nef. 2019. The insulin/IGF system in mammalian sexual development and reproduction. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 20(18): 4440. DOI: 10.3390/ijms20184440

Olivera, N.G.T., R. Cerda, M.C. Ramirez, P. Garces and W. Sauer. 2009. Relationship between blood plasma IGF-1 and GH concentrations and growth of Holstein steers. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 17(1-2): 37-41. Available on:

Pawan, S., I. Singh, S. Kalyan, S. Sajjan and S.K. Phulia. 2010. Relationship of age and body weight with scrotal circumference in Murrah buffalo bulls/males. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 80(5): 418-421.

Renaville, R., A. Devolder, S. Massart, M. Sneyers, A. Burny and D. Portetelle. 1993. Changes in the hypophysial-gonadal axis during the onset of puberty in young bulls. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, 99(2): 443-449. DOI: 10.1530/jrf.0.0990443

Renaville, R., S. Massart, M. Sneyers, M. Falaki, N. Gengler, A. Burny and D. Portetelle. 1996. Dissociation of increases in plasma insulin-like growth factor I and testosterone during the onset of puberty in bulls. J. Reprod. Fertil., 106(1): 79-86. DOI: 10.1530/jrf.0.1060079

Renaville, R., C. Van Eenaeme, B.H. Breier, L. Vleurick, C. Bertozzi, N. Gengler, J.L. Hornick, I. Parmentier, L. Istasse, V. Haezebroeck and S. Massart. 2000. Feed restriction in young bulls alters the onset of puberty in relationship with plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol., 18(2): 165-176. DOI: 10.1016/s0739-7240(99)00076-4

Sakase, M., K. Kitagawa, M. Kibushi, N. Kawate, W.W.P.N. Weerakoon, M.A. Hannan, N. Kohama and H. Tamada. 2018. Relationships of plasma insulin-like peptide 3, testosterone, inhibin, and insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations with scrotal circumference and testicular weight in Japanese black beef bull calves. J. Reprod. Develop., 64(5): 401-407. DOI: 10.1262/jrd.2018-034

Selvaraju, S., T. Sivasubramani, B.S. Raghavendra, P. Raju, S.B.N. Rao, D. Kumar and J.P. Ravindra. 2012. Effect of dietary energy on seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), serum IGF-I and testosterone levels, semen quality and fertility in adult rams. Theriogenology, 78(3): 646-655. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.03.010

Selvaraju, S., I.J. Reddy, S. Nandi, S.B. Rao and J.P. Ravindra. 2009. Influence of IGF-I on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa motility, membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation and fructose uptake in vitro. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 113(1-4): 60-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.08.011

Weerakoon, W.W.P.N., M. Sakase, N. Kawate, M.A. Hannan, N. Kohama and H. Tamada. 2018. Plasma IGF-I, INSL3, testosterone, inhibin concentrations and scrotal circumferences surrounding puberty in Japanese Black beef bulls with normal and abnormal semen. Theriogenology, 114: 54-62. DOI: DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.03.006




How to Cite

Kumar, A., Singh, G., Andonissamy, J., Kumar, P., Venkateshappa, A., Bala, R., … Sharma, R. K. (2023). Inter-relationship of peripheral hormones (IGF-1, testosterone and growth hormone) with reproductive traits in male buffalo. Buffalo Bulletin, 42(4), 467–477.



Original Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>