Respiratory depression effects of diazepam, midazolam premedication and thiopental-isoflurane combination anaesthesia in water buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis)

Main Article Content

Harmanjeet Singh Tarunbir Singh Pallavi Verma Jitender Mohindroo Mulinti Raghunath Narinder Singh Saini Navdeep Singh


Study was designed to evaluate respiratory depression and blood gas, acid base and electrolyte changes in twelve water buffaloes subjected to general anaesthesia while performing diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy in dorsal recumbency. Animals were randomly divided into two groups comprising of six animals each. Anaesthetic protocol included midazolam (Group I) and diazepam (Group II) preanaesthesia 0.2 mg/kg bwt. followed by induction with thiopental and maintenance with isoflurane in both the groups. Estimation of blood gas, acid base and electrolyte values showed no major alterations in blood electrolyte (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride) values in both groups. However, the electrolyte values were better maintained in animals subjected to midazolam preanaesthesia (Group II). Blood gas and acid base values in two groups showed significant decrease in blood pH, PaO2 and increase in PaCO2 during the anaesthesia indicating respiratory acidosis. It was observed that respiratory acidosis was the predominant acid base alteration in animals subjected to general anaesthesia owing to dorsal recumbency and depressed respiration.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
SINGH, Harmanjeet et al. Respiratory depression effects of diazepam, midazolam premedication and thiopental-isoflurane combination anaesthesia in water buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis). Buffalo Bulletin, [S.l.], v. 40, n. 2, p. 353-361, june 2021. ISSN 2539-5696. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 28 sep. 2022.
Original Article


Alexander, C.M., L. Chen, R. Ray and B. Marshall. 1985. The influence of halothane and isoflurane on pulmonary collateral ventilation. Anesthesiology, 62(2): 135-140. DOI: 10.1097/00000542-198502000-00007
Bailey, J.E. and L.S. Pablo. 1998. Practical approach to acid-Base disorders. Vet. Clin. N. Am.-Small, 28(3): 645-662. DOI: 10.1016/S0195-5616(98)50060-5
Barash, P.G., B.F. Cullen, R.K. Stoelting, M.K. Cahalan and M.C. Stock. 2009. Clinical Anesthesia, 6th ed. Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.
Day, T.K., J.S. Gaynor and W.W. Muir. 1995. Blood gas values during intermittent positive pressure ventilation and spontaneous ventilation in 160 anesthetized horses positioned in lateral or dorsal recumbency. Vet. Surg., 24(3): 266-276. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950x.1995.tb01330.x
DiBartola, S.P.C. 1998. Advances in fluid and electrolyte disorders: Hyponatremia. Vet. Clin. N. Am.-Small, 28: 515-532.
Filho, F.M., I.A. Gomer, F.J.C. Tendillo, P.R.L. Nascimento, A. Frias and A.C. Paula. 1998. Cardiorespiratory effects of acepromazine, xylazine and midazolam combination with different isofluorane concentrations in dogs. Acta Scientiarum Animal Sciences, 20: 355-360.
Fujimoto, J.I. and M.T. Lenehan. 1985. The influence of body position on the blood gas and acid base status of halothane anaesthetized sheep. Vet. Surg., 14: 169-172. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.1985.tb00855.x
Gangl, M., S. Grulke, J. Detilleux, I. Caudron and D. Serteyn. 2001. Comparison of thiopentone/guaifenesin, ketamine/guaifenesin and ketamine/midazolam for the induction of horses to be anaesthetised with isoflurane. Vet. Rec., 149(5): 147-151. DOI: 10.1136/vr.149.5.147
Gwinnutt, C.L. 1996. Maintenance of anaesthesia: Inhalational (volatile) agents and intravenous infusion, p. 85-100. In Clinical Anaesthesia. Blackwell Science. Victoria, Australia.
Hall, L.W., J.R. Gillespie and W.S. Tyler. 1968. Alveolar-arterial oxygen tension differences in anesthetized horses. British Journal of Anesthesia, 40(8): 560-568. DOI: 10.1093/bja/40.8.560
Hikasa, Y., K. Saito, K. Takase and S. Ogasawar. 2000. Clinical, cardiopulmonary, hematological and serum biochemical effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia in oxygen under spontaneous breathing in sheep. Small Ruminant Res., 36(3): 241-249. DOI: 10.1016/s0921-4488(99)00121-2
Husby, P., J.K. Heltne, M.E. Koller, S. Birkeland, J. Westby, R. Fosse and T. Lund. 1998. Midazolam-fentanyl-isofluorane anaesthesia is suitable for haemodynamic and fluid balance studies in pigs. Laboratory Animals, 32(3): 316-323. DOI: 10.1258/002367798780559257
Kehlet, H. and J.B. Dahl. 1993. The value of multimodal or balanced analgesia in postoperative pain treatment. Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 77(5): 1048-1056. DOI: 10.1213/00000539-199311000-00030
Mandrioli, R., L. Mercolini and M.A. Raggi. 2008. Benzodiazepine metabolism: An analytical perspective. Curr. Drug Metab., 9(8): 827-844. DOI: 10.2174/138920008786049258
Marks, S.L. and J. Taboada. 1998. Advances in fluid and electrolyte disorders: Hypernatremia and hypertonic syndromes. Vet. Clin. N. Am.-Small, 14: 533-543.
Mirakhur, K.K., S.N. Sharma, V.R. Kumar and S. Singh. 1989. Diazepam and its combination with thiopentone sodium anaesthesia in calves. Indian J. Vet. Surg., 10: 9-12.
Mirakhur, K.K., S.N. Sharma and V.R. Kumar. 1988. Diazepam and thiopentone sodium anaesthesia in calves: Evaluation of cardiorespiratory dynamics, blood gases and acid base status. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A, 35(10): 775-784.
Muir, W.W., J.A.E. Hubbel, R. Skarda and R. Bednarski. 1995. Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia, Mosby, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
Muir, W.W. and J.A.E. Hubbell. 1991. Equine Anesthesia: Monitoring and Emergency Therapy, 2nd ed. Mosby, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
Mutoh, T., R. Nishimura, H.Y. Kim, S. Matsunaga and N. Sasaki. 1997. Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane compared with halothane, enflurane and isoflorane in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res., 58(8): 885-890.
Natalini, C.C., A.S. Polydoro, R.L. Cavalcanti, L.Q. Branquinho, N. Crosignani, P.B. Serpa, R.G. Schallenberger, B.F.P. Molnar, A. Carregaro and F. Futema. 2008. Effects of a convertible to-and-fro and circle anesthetic system on cardiopulmonary variables in isoflurane anesthetized horses. Acta Sci. Vet., 36(3): 229-233. DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.17290
Phillips, S.L. and D. Polzin. 1998. Advances in fluid and electrolyte disorders: Clinical disorders of potassium homeostasis. Vet. Clin. N. Am.-Small, 14: 545-564.
Riss, J., J. Cloyd, J. Gates and S. Collins. 2008. Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol. Scand., 118(2): 69-86. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x
Singh, H., T. Singh, M. Raghunath, J. Mohindroo, P. Verma, N.S. Saini and S.S. Singh. 2013. Blood gas, acid base and electrolyte changes during diazepam, midazolam premedication and halothane anaesthesia in buffaloes subjected to diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 83(7): 693-696.
Singh, H. 1988. Studies on diazepam, chloral hydrate and halothane anaesthesia in relation to different surgical operations in bovine. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.
Singh, J., B. Prashad, R. Kumar, R.N. Kohli and S.S. Rathor. 1977. Treatment of diaphragmatic hernia in buffaloes. Aust. Vet. J., 53: 473-475. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.1977.tb05465.x
Steffey, E.P. and K.R. Mama. 2007. Inhalation anesthetics, p. 355-393. In Tranquilli, W.J., J.C. Thurmon and K.A. Grimm (eds.) Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, Wiley, New Jersey, USA.
Stoelting, R.K. 1999. Inhaled anesthetics, p. 36-76. In Percy, R.C. (edn.) Pharmacology and Physiology in Anesthetic Practice, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, USA.
Tagawa, M., S. Okano, T. Sako, H. Orima and Steffey. 1994. Effect of change in body position on cardiopulmonary function and plasma cortisol in cattle. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 56: 131-134.
Thurmon, J.C., W.J. Tranquilli and G.J. Benson. 1996. Lumb and Jone’s Veterinary Anaesthesia, 3rd ed. Willium and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.
Weaver, A.D. 1971. Complications in halothane anaesthesia of cattle. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A, 18(5): 409-416. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.1971.tb00594.x

Most read articles by the same author(s)